MAN – HIS COMPOSITION
BODY, SOUL AND SPIRIT
There are two natures in the human soul which are developed in accordance with what the desires of its affective faculty, and what it rationally decides through the cognitive faculty. The body strives to use the faculties of the soul to satisfy itself. It contends against the spiritual nature and thus the fleshly or carnal faculties can become tyrannical, because the desires of the flesh and of the spirit are contrary to each other. From the spirit of God the soul’s affective faculty receives good things.
The soul being a single hypostasis without parts is indivisible and indissoluble. It has three faculties, Cognitive, affective and volitive, intellectual, feelings and the deciding will. The function of the cognitive faculty is to enlighten the will or volitive faculty to indicate the objects it adapts and laws of fulfillment. The affective faculty feels the needs of the body and soul, and cry out and seeking their fulfillment by the volitive faculty. The function of the volitive faculty is to decide to do whatever is requisite in order to fulfill the needs felt by the affective or cognitive faculty.
Example: As noon approaches, the cognitive faculty takes note that it is almost time for lunch. The affective faulty feels the hunger and thirst sometimes with hunger pangs. With this information the volitive faculty acts deciding to eat lunch, and this process will be repeated at the next mealtimes. The source of the soul’s two natures, carnal and spiritual, are due to the soul’s union with aa carnal body and a spirit from God. The carnal affective faculty makes its needs or demands felt as does the spiritual affective faculty, and this arouses conflicts which may be settled by the cognitive rational faculty. The carnal affective faculty or stomach is aware of a steak cooking and desires arises and almost succeeds in directing the will to get it. But the cognitive faculty reminds the will that it is a fast day and not permissible. Whichever is stronger will prevail, the affective or cognitive faculty. If they agree the will choose accordingly.
God speaks to the spiritual faculty through conscience reminding the soul that it is good to believe and acquire faith. The idea sounds pleasant to the spiritual affective faculty and agreeable to the spiritual cognitive faculty and the volitive faculty or will acts and the soul acquires faith, due to its reception of good advice from cognition and affection.
The volitive faculty is the center of our lives to which the affective and cognitive faculties communicate. The affective faculty arouses and the cognitive faculty enlightens the volitive faculty so that it will act upon its needs which is to stay alive and acquire perfection. If the soul acts correctly it becomes happy. If it acts badly the soul experiences unhappiness. The volitive faculty of the soul is the free person who is completely responsible for its decisions. It is the decisive will which the Lord’s prayer cites: “Your will be done on earth as in heaven.” When our will completely conforms to God’s will, it indicates perfection. To live well the volitive faculty must be firm and resolute in making only good decisions in conformance with God’s will which is the only correct source.
HOW THE WILL IS FORMED
The will or volitive faculty develops according to the influence of the cognitive and affective faculties and whatever power volition already possesses. By repeated willing and acting it develops and increases actions; work is acquired through the rational cognitive faculty and the pure affective faculty is acquired from the divine spiritual nature. From the beginning to the end the will of every person pursues one goal and one end – that of pleasure and joy and avoids as much as possible affliction and grief calling the former good and the latter evil.
The volitive faculty is analogous to a king, the spiritual affective faculty and the rational cognitive faculty are like the two best counselors; the body and its cravings are the populace ruled over; the nerves of the body are the army of the king by which he keeps the body in subjection and repels adversaries. Swayed by many cravings and pleasures of the flesh, it is democratic; when it is enslaved to a single craving which cause him to sacrifice the rest, it is monarchical or tyrannical; when enslaved only to the cravings of need, it is oligarchical. No form of government has been instituted as the finest and the best which is the thearchic or God-ruled form of government. In such a government joy and happiness will be the norm as no one will be without and men will live in peace and harmony.